Can disorder in our lives end?
Two public talks in San Francisco, 1983
1st Public Talk, San Francisco, California
April 30, 1983
One should be clear what the intention of these talks are. They are not to inform or to instruct, not to do any kind of propaganda or programme the audience in a different direction. Sorry, people are coming in.
From the beginning we must be very clear that you are not being told what to do or what to think. We have been programmed enough. But this talk and tomorrow's talk is that we should think together, look at the world it actually is, what is going on, together, without any bias, without any prejudice, to look at the world that man has created. That each human being throughout the world has created this society. This society is corrupt, immoral, and it always has had wars. From time beyond measure they have had wars. They used to kill with arrows, now you can blast whole generations, and millions of people. This is called advancement, evolution. There is poverty all over the world. In the part of the country where the speaker comes from - he has lived in poverty, he knows what poverty is.
And there are religious divisions throughout the world: the Catholic, the Protestant, the Muslim, the Hindu, the Buddhist, the Tibetan and so on. There is a great deal of conflict throughout the world - economically, socially, nationally. And one wonders what is the cause of all this, why there is so much division, so much struggle, so many problems multiplying. Any problem that is being solved brings about other problems. Why there are wars; there are about forty wars are going on now. All the religions and the politicians and so-called leaders talk about everlasting peace. To have peace in the world one must live peacefully. And there is the threat of nuclear war brought about by different ideologies: the communist ideology, the democratic ideology. The one completely totalitarian, controlling one's thoughts, actions, movements and so on. In the so-called democratic world there is more freedom to do what one likes, each one expressing what he wants to do - his thing.
And what is the answer to all this? Who is responsible for all this - the chaos, the disorder, the insecurity, the sense of great confusion - who has created this society in which we live? And what is our relationship to that society? What's our relationship to the wars? As the speaker said, and I hope we are serious enough to consider all these questions, observing without any bias whatsoever at the events that are taking place in this world, what is our responsibility to all this? To the wars they are preparing, the Generals and the politicians are having a marvellous time, inventing new ways of destruction, total destruction. And there have been demonstrations all over the world against a particular kind of war, the nuclear war. Europe is in a turmoil about this. And nobody, including the highest so-called religious leaders, or the politicians, or the recent invasion of gurus into this country, have ever talked about ending all wars.
So one must ask, if one is concerned seriously, whether it is possible to live in this world, both outwardly and inwardly, psychologically inside the skin, as it were, and outwardly, to live in peace, to live without conflict, man against man, man against woman, and all the rest of it. When one looks around objectively, sanely, rationally, as one must if one is to live in this beautiful earth which we are gradually destroying, who is responsible and what can each one of us do about it?
So please, as we said, we are looking at all these problems together. Not that the speaker looks at it and you just listen to it. This is not a lecture as it's commonly understood. Lecture is upon a particular subject, to instruct, to inform. We are not doing anything of that kind. Together, you and the speaker, are investigating the cause of all this misery, the confusion, the chaos, the utter callousness of human beings.
To understand all these problems, which are becoming more and more complex, and life is becoming extraordinarily difficult and dangerous, one must question, doubt, be sceptical, not gullible. That is for most of us rather difficult because specially in this country the authorities, the specialists are taking us over. You don't know what to do, you ask a specialist about almost everything - your sexual life, the way you must think, how to do your face, how to dress, and so on. We think we are free, we are not. We are going to probe into all this together. Please, this is not an entertainment, and we want to be entertained. The whole entertainment industry, the television, the football, all the entertaining books and magazines have so conditioned us that we want to be told what to do, to be entertained, to run away from ourselves. And this is not a talk of that kind. This is very serious because we are concerned very deeply to understand the cause of all this. Why human beings have become what they are after forty, fifty thousand years or more. Why human beings outwardly have changed tremendously; the whole technological world, and the extraordinary things they are doing. But inwardly, psychologically we remain more or less what we have been for thousands of years. That's a fact. It's not something invented by the speaker. The so-called evolution which is the time process, time sequence of a million years, or less, or more, has not changed fundamentally man. And is man, human beings, what will make them change radically so that we live on this earth peacefully?
So we must examine together. The speaker means together, you and the speaker look at all these facts. Not as a democrat, or a republican, a communist, or a Hindu, Buddhist, and all that nonsensical division, but look at all this, face it. And who has done all this mischief, this misery, this nastiness in the world? Human beings throughout the world have created this society in which they live. Society is not different from us, we are the society. You cannot possibly bring about a change in society if you yourself as a human being do not fundamentally, basically, change. That's an obvious fact. If you and I, or another, consider that society is something that has existed in spite of us, if we think that, that is a fallacy. It is not a communist conclusion, dialectical materialism; it is obvious fact that we as human beings living on this earth have created the society, and the society then controls us, shapes us. It is like a tide going in and out. It's this constant reaction between us as separate human beings and the society in which we live. What we are - our agony, our suffering, our confusion, our disorder - society is what we are. And there is no question or doubt about that.
You may disagree, but please examine it. Let's use our brains to look, to observe what we are. Not according to any psychologist, modern or recently ancient, not according to some philosopher, or according to a book, but to see what we are, actually. If we are in conflict we bring about conflict in the world. If each one of us want to live peacefully - and that's again a very complex problem, whether man can ever live on this earth peacefully - there must be end to conflict both inwardly and outwardly. And whether that is possible, living in the modern world, to live without a shadow of conflict. We are going to together examine that question.
One of the factors is that we are trained to solve problems - biological problems, architectural problems, engineering problems and so on, scientific, religious problems, from the days we spend in school, universities and so on, our brain is trained and educated to solve problems. So we have made our life into a vast complex problem to be solved. That again is a fact. And we are only dealing with facts first. And when we are able to look at the facts clearly, without any resistance, without any direction, then we can go beyond the facts.
So first of all we must look at the fact that we live in disorder. Our life is confused, unhappy, a struggle, aggressive, competitive, and so is the society. We are violent people, human beings throughout the world, perhaps derived from the animal, the apes and so on, as biologically we are violent people. We get so angry so quickly, we hate people, you are jealous of people, and so on. Violence is not merely physical. Violence is most complex and deep psychologically. And so we have created a society that has become appallingly dangerous.
So first we must examine, probe together, why this condition has been brought about in the world, and why we human beings live as we do, endlessly working, working, working, quarrelling, having rows, miserable, frightened, unhappy, lonely, depressed and so on. We must look what we are first and then we can affect the society in which we live. So the transformation of society is not important, but what is important, essential, is, can our brain, which is the centre of all our thought and emotions and feelings, can that brain which has been conditioned, can that brain change radically? We are saying, the speaker is saying that it can fundamentally, deeply can bring about a mutation. We will talk about that presently.
It is not a matter of acceptance. As we said, please, always have a doubt, question, never accepting anything from another, because all leaders have failed. We have had leaders galore, politically, religiously, but they have not brought about order in our lives, nor happiness, security. So one must totally reject psychologically - please bear that in mind - totally, completely reject any kind of spiritual authority. Because we create the authority. If we are disordered, live in disorder, confused, uncertain, that very uncertainty, confusion and disorder brings about the authority. Politically also. I saw this case in Italy with Mussolini and other leaders; where there is disorder in us, that disorder creates the authority, the dictator, the tyrant.
So our concern is, can this disorder in our lives end? And then only can we live peacefully, orderly, a sense of security and certainty. It is most extraordinary, one of the things is, that we always start with certainties - that god exists, that heaven is there - of course that is old fashioned, but it is still there. About 800 million Catholics believe all that, so do the Hindus, but the Buddhists have no god, but they have created the Buddha into a god. So we live in disorder. What is the cause of this disorder? If one can find, not in abstraction, intellectually, but actually find what is the cause of this disorder. There may be many causes, or only one cause. And if one can discover for oneself, not to be told by another, including by the speaker, if we can find the cause the effect then can be radically changed because the cause can be ended. If one has some kind of disease the causes can be found diagnostically, then that cause can be ended. Similarly if we can find the cause of this conflict, these wars, these religious absurd divisions, then the causes can be eradicated completely. So we are probing into this question.
One observes there is great division in the world - geographically, nationally, religiously, politically, economically, racially and so on - there is tremendous division in this world. That's a fact. In this division man has sought - including woman, forgive me if I don't include the woman. When I say man, woman is included in it. Don't get annoyed or assert yourself when I don't mention the woman. It is all becoming so absurd. (Laughter) Really it's childish, and we are all supposed to be grown up men - and women. (Laughter)
We are asking: are we aware of this division first of all, outwardly, linguistically, and inwardly? We are so fragmented. Again this is a fact. Now what has brought about this division? And what has brought about these terrible wars? Because consider we have had two appalling wars in this century, consider how many women and men and wives, husbands, mothers and so on have shed tears, maimed, the so-called heroes who have killed more. The wars seem to have no end. And we are responsible for it. So we are considering why this division exists in the world, actually. Who has brought it about? Who is responsible for it? All those people that are being killed, near this country and far from this country - who is responsible?
So we must first ask why this division exists. Each one of us wants to live in security. That is natural. That's instinctive response, to have food, clothes and shelter. Every human being in the world, the most ignorant, uneducated, the most sophisticated human being wants security both outwardly and inwardly, to be safe. And this division, national division, has made that security impossible; outwardly, wars, you are being threatened by another country, by another ideology, and so you say you must protect yourself. This is what the politicians and all the so-called leaders are saying, because each one of us sought security in division. The family, we thought there we can be secure in the family. From that the nation; the nation is only a glorified tribalism. So, we sought security in individuality and we sought security in family, in various forms of division, religiously and so on. So when one realises, actually not theoretically, not intellectually, but actually in daily life that where there is division there must be conflict. That's a law, a natural law. If there is a division between the man and the woman, the husband and wife and so on, there must be conflict between them. This is so. That's why in this country, and other countries, there are so many divorces, each one wanting his own way, each one wanting to express himself fully, urged on by the psychologists: 'Don't restrain, do whatever you want immediately'. (Laughter)
The gurus throughout the world, not only imported from India and the Far East, you have your own peculiar gurus too here, (laughter) the gurus have created this division too - my guru is better than your guru, more powerful, more assertive, more money, more property, because we all want to be secure. And that security is being denied outwardly by war. You may be secure now but what about your children, grandchildren and so on? This earth is not just for one's particular life, or the duration of a particular life. We are meant to live on this earth happily, without suffering, and not only you but your grandchildren, generation after generation. And this division has denied all that. So is there an end to division? And what has brought about this division? We see security, but much deeper than that, what is the cause of all this?
I hope we are together in all this. We are thinking together. The speaker is not trying to stimulate you, he is not acting as a drug, intoxicant. But together, with strength, with clarity, looking at all this. Our lives, our daily monotonous routine life, lonely, occupied, going to the office from nine to five for the rest of one's life and then die, following some crazy guru, crazy leaders. I do not know if you are aware what is happening, specially in California, each one has his own particular little song, his own particular little guru, his own particular nonsense. So we are probing, please this is very serious, we are probing into what is the cause of all this, apart from security. Man wants security and that security is being denied by his own actions, by his own life, by his own lack of integrity, by his own lack of sanity, intelligence. We will go into the question of what is intelligence a little later. So who is responsible?
Thought is limited because all knowledge - all knowledge, present, past and future - all knowledge is limited. There is no complete knowledge about anything. The scientists, the biologists, the chemists, engineers, whatever they have learnt, whatever they have accumulated through experience as knowledge, is always - one won't say everlastingly - knowledge in the future or in the past is always limited. That again is a fact. As all experience, whether your personal experience or the experience of humanity - there is no difference between humanity and yourself - all the accumulated knowledge of past centuries is limited. And thought is the response of knowledge, response of memory held in the brain. And so thought has brought about this division because in itself it is limited. If you are thinking about yourself, as most people do unfortunately, from morning until night, about themselves, about their problems, whether they are doing the right thing, or whether they are following some bearded guru and so on, that very thinking about yourself is limited. And any action that is limited must invariably bring about division. That's clear. That's factual. That's not imaginary or an intellectual conceptual theory. Where there is division - between the Jew and the Arab, between the communist and the so-called democratic, where there is division between the Catholic, Protestant, Buddhist, all this has been brought about by thought.
Thought has built the great cathedrals of the world, the great temples, the great marvellous mosques, and all that which is inside the temples, the mosques and the cathedrals and churches, are put together by thought. Thought has been evolving slowly from a great many thousand years, and thought has put together the religious life, the monastic life, the celibate life, the life of so-called particular religious life. And thought also has created the marvellous world of technology: the computer, the extraordinary instruments of war, the submarine, the carrier, and so on, so on - marvellous surgery, engineering; you must have time to learn a language, a skill - all that is brought about by thought. I am sure nobody can deny that. It is so obvious. And thought also has brought about this division as me and you, psychologically. The psyche, the 'me', the ego, the personality with all its tendencies and idiosyncrasies, with its peculiarities, is brought about by thought. The psyche is the essence of thought. What you think, what you feel, what you imagine, your illusions, your aspirations, your gods and all the rituals is the result of great deal of thinking, a thousand years and more of thinking. Without thought there is no thinker. The thinker is thought.
So thought is responsible for all this. And thought is the content of our consciousness. You may not like to use the word 'consciousness'. Modern psychologists may say there is only action and reaction, nothing else. But action, reaction, has the movement of time, memory, thought. Thought with its reaction and action has put together the content of our consciousness. Please be patient in your investigation, if you are at all probing into what is being said. It is not that you are being instructed or informed. You yourself, sitting there, looking at yourself. Your consciousness with its action and reaction, with its beliefs, ideals, aspirations, fears, the pursuit of pleasure, loneliness, the agony, the anxiety, the uncertainty, the constant suffering, is the content of your consciousness. Again there is no doubt about it, it is a fact.
This consciousness is common to all mankind. You go to India or Far East, they may have a different form of culture, outward behaviour, outward manners, or no manners, but their consciousness - they suffer like you, they are lonely like you, they are unhappy, uncertain, anxious, desperately lonely, just like you. So your consciousness is not yours. It is the consciousness of humanity, of which you are. You are humanity. You are not separate from other human beings. You are the rest of mankind. This is not a theory but an actual daily fact. You go to the office, being kicked around there. (Laughter) This happens in India and Japan, in Russia. You quarrel with your wife and husband and so on; this happens too in other countries. This is a daily common factor. Please realise the truth of this. For god's sake, see what we are all doing. Your consciousness is not yours, it is the whole of humanity, therefore you are the entire humanity. Therefore you are not an individual. You may think, or you may have the illusion that you are individual. That has been created by religions, that you are an individual soul, and a different word is used in India. This has been this illusion has been created from childhood. It is one of our conditionings. A fragments says, 'I must fulfil', 'I am more important than anybody else'. But it is still a fragment. And the fragment is making tremendous mischief because it clings to its division. You are a fragment of the whole of humanity, and when you give importance to the fragment, as you do, your whole culture is that. You are being encouraged by the politicians, religions, psychologists and so on - ambitious, greedy, competitive. The fragment is this. And so you are maintaining the division. And therefore you are utterly, completely responsible for wars because you are insisting that you are American, another insisting he is an Indian and so on. Not only there is the division, linguistic division, but ideological division. So, thought has been responsible for all this.
It is not a question of ending thought, or asking how to end thought. That's one of our favourite conditionings, 'how to', 'tell me what to do'. But thought has its place. Otherwise you couldn't go from here to your house, you couldn't speak a language, you couldn't drive a car, you couldn't possibly do all the technological things that one has to do in daily life. So thought there is necessary, knowledge there is necessary. But is it necessary in the psychological world? We are going to examine that very closely, deeply, taking one thing after another. We are asking: psychologically, inwardly, inside the skin as it were, is knowledge - please listen to this a little bit attentively, if you will kindly - is knowledge, which is the movement of time, thought, that movement, is it necessary in our inward life, psychologically, inside? We are going to find out, we are going to question. And I hope you are questioning with the speaker.
We live in disorder. That's a fact. Thought has brought about this disorder, which is again another fact. So we have to examine whether this disorder of our daily life can end. Not seek order. Through negation of disorder there is order naturally. Through negation the positive is always there. So we are going to find out what is the cause of this disorder. How does it express itself? To see this disorder we must look first at relationship in our life, in daily relationship with man, woman and so on. Why is there disorder in our relationships? Not with the universe, or cosmos, or something outside, far away, but actually in our relationship with each other. Relationship is the most extraordinarily important thing in life. If we had no relationship we wouldn't be here. The man who retires, or the nun into a monastery, or the man who disappears into the hills, or takes to a life of mendicant, as they do in India, there are those people who are very learned, they are not mere mendicants - they too are related. They may abandon their own particular family, abandon their name and take on a new name, but they too, the hermit, is related to the earth, to his neighbour, to nature.
And to come nearer, which is you, your wife, your husband or whatever it is, there is disorder in our relationship. Why? One dominating the other, each one wanting to fulfil in his own way, each one earning his own livelihood - you know all that is going on in this modern civilization, specially in this country. They may meet sexually but otherwise they are totally unrelated because each one pursues his own individual inclination, his own ambition, his own greed, his own and so on. So our relationships are like two parallel lines, never meeting, so maintaining perpetual division. And this division, with all its anxieties, quarrels, jealousies, you know - you know much better than the speaker does - your family life. That life is in disorder. And can that disorder in relationship end? Because that is the closest thing we have. To go very far you must begin very, very, very near, which is you. And can the disorder in this relationship end? Please ask yourself this question. If you say it is impossible, man has always lived this way, he has always been conditioned this way, as some of the philosophers, writers, psychologists, professionals maintain, that the brain cannot be in its conditioning can only be modified, can never be completely free from conditioning. We totally disagree with that, personally.
So, why is there this division between man and woman and so on? Has not each one of us not only his own image about himself, what you should be, what he must be and so on, an image about himself, he has an image about his wife, or husband. That image has been accumulated for ten years, or one day, or fifty years. I am sure you are aware of this. The relationship is between these two images, which thought through time has put together. So there is actually no relationship. There is relationship between two images which time has put together. Now, one asks, can one live in this world without a single image? Not only about your wife and husband and so on, but about anything, without a single image. I don't know if you have even thought about all this, if you have thought about it, if you've gone into it, and if you have questioned it, probed deeply into the question whether it is possible to live without a single image. Is love an image? Is love thought? Desire? Pleasure? Remembrance? Is that love? Or perhaps you never even use that word. You might say you love your wife, or your girl and so on, but behind it, behind that word there are a great many complex reactions.
So one begins to ask how is this, whether this - not 'how' - whether this image building can ever end? I hope you are asking this question, being aware of your own images, how you look, your vanity which is a part of your image, your arrogance, your aggressiveness, your ambition to become something psychologically - why have you an image at all? But to find out whether it is possible to live in this world without a shadow of an image requires a great deal of investigation, which is part of meditation. Meditation is not some silly practice, following some absurd system - which we will go into if we have time tomorrow. Meditation is this, to find out for oneself whether it is possible to live without a single image about yourself or another. When there is that freedom there is love then. Love is not then memory, knowledge. It is something totally outside the brain. And disorder exists as long as there is this idea - please listen, if you will - there is this idea of evolution. We are not talking about fundamental absurdities. There is evolution, from the child, from the baby into a grown up man. There is evolution as the seed which grows into a marvellous tree. There is evolution in learning. I don't know Russian, one doesn't know Russian but it needs time to learn, and that is part of evolution. To learn a skill requires time, that is also evolution. Time, thought, is the process of evolution.
So we are questioning, is there - please listen, if you will kindly and amicably - is there psychological, psychic evolution at all? I, you, becoming something. To become implies time, growth, like the seed into a tree. Is there psychological evolution at all? I know we accept that as a fact, that I will become something. Perhaps that is the result of being a clerk, becoming a manager, the manager becoming the executive, the executive becoming god! (Laughter) We carry that same principle into the psychological world, that I will become something, reach heaven, reach illumination, or whatever one aspires to. So, we are asking, questioning, doubting whether there is psychological evolution at all.
That is, the psyche, part of the psyche is violence. We all know what violence is, both physically and psychologically. Violence is a very complex problem. Violence exists as long as there is comparison, as long as there is imitation, conformity. Violence, we all are violent, inherited from the past. And it is a common effort to end violence through non-violence. Right? We are all saying this, propagated by several people from India, and Tolstoy and others. Pursue non-violence, politically, in other ways. Non-violence is a non-fact. It is an illusion, it has no reality. What has reality is violence. And when you pursue non-violence you are cheating yourself. Non-violence doesn't exist, it is an idea, it is a theory. But what exists actually is violence. And we are asking, as we said, this violence is part of your psyche, of you; will violence end through time, through evolution? I hope you are putting the question to yourself. That is, I will gradually one will gradually understand, delve, find the cause, and gradually dissipate this violence. The moment you admit graduality and the future, that implies evolution.
Violence cannot end through evolution, now or in the future, because man has lived for million or less years, a thousand years in violence, it is part of his nature, part of his psyche, part of his consciousness, his action and reaction. You hate me and I hate you, you kick me and I kick you. That's what we are doing. That is what man has done for thousands of years. And we say to ourselves, some day it will end, through League of Nations - absurd, isn't it - through some divine action, through some mutation in the psyche, suddenly.
So is it possible to end violence, not some time in the future, but immediately? The whole content of violence, not the word only, but the significance of that word, the depth of that word, the content of that word, which is not merely the physical action but the whole movement of me, the ego, and you, separate, trying to conform, trying to imitate, trying to become. All that is part of violence. Aggression is violence. Competitiveness is violence. And to talk about being free from competitiveness is an anathema in this country. You abhor it. You will say, 'Doesn't all nature compete. Doesn't a tree struggle against other trees to find light'. But we are supposed to be human beings with some kind of intelligence.
So violence, we are asking, is it possible for it to end instantly, not gradually? It is a very serious question. We will see whether it is possible or not to end violence without any motive, because the moment you have a motive to end violence, that very motive becomes part of violence. I hope you understand all this. If, or when you want to end violence because it is profitable, because it is the right thing to do, or you think violence is anti-religious, you want to live a peaceful life, any kind of motive behind the act of ending of violence is the continuation of violence. I hope one hopes you understand this. You can look at it for yourself. If you want to end violence it can't have direction, you can't have a motive which says, 'I will end it'. So we are going to find out, if there is time this morning, I think there is - half past twelve, we will go on. May we? You aren't too tired? Aren't you?
Krishnamurti: I am surprised! (Laughter) One is surprised because this is a very serious matter. You have listened for an hour and a half. If you are working, if your brain is active, enquiring, questioning, doubting, you must be your brain must be tired because you are not used to this kind of thinking, looking. But we will go on.
We are asking the question - when you ask a question there is doubt behind it, there is scepticism. And scepticism, doubt, clarifies the brain - which is against all your religion. You don't doubt your guru, you don't doubt your religious authorities, you don't doubt the whole rigmarole of religious entertainment. So when you question whether violence can end instantly, the whole complexity of violence, you are doubting, questioning, asking, asking yourself. Now let's find out, probe together whether it is possible to end violence completely so that you can live in this earth peacefully. Because if you are violent you cannot possibly live peacefully. That's not a motive. But the fact is we are violence - violence between man and man, woman and man, and so on. What is violence? It is a reaction. It is a response. It is there, inherited perhaps in the very genes themselves. We are asking, can all that end?
How do you observe? Observe a tree, observe the lovely sunset or the beauty of the sky in the evening. How do you observe things? When you look at the new moon, just over the horizon, a slip of light, hardly perceptible, when you look at it, what is your reaction? Do you say, 'How beautiful it is', and turn away to other things? Do you ever look totally, completely, attentively at anything? Do you ever look at your wife, or your husband, or your children completely, without any reaction of parent, and all that business? Just to look. Can you look at a tree without naming it? Can you look at that moon, full moon of an evening, when the heavens are clear and all the evening light is awake? Do you ever look at it without the word, without all the remembrance of full moons of yesterdays? Just to look at it. When you so look at it there is a totally different movement going on. It is not the movement of thought, it is not the movement of pleasure, it is not a remembrance of something past. You are looking at it as though for the first time in your life when you don't name it.
So can you move from the outer, which is looking at the moon, move inwardly to this whole structure of violence, look at it, without any reaction, without naming it as violence. That sense of clear observation without any motive, without any reaction, bias, just to look at this extraordinary thing we have called violence. It is like looking at a great precious jewel. It is not yours, or mine, but it is there in your hands. When you so look at it so completely attentively, that which has been called violence with all its movement ends totally.
You are not, please, you are not learning from the speaker how to observe. You are learning for yourself what it means to observe. Observe the hall, be aware of the nature, the structure of the hall in which we are, the rain, the clouds, those extraordinary clouds full of light and depth and quality, just to observe all this. And so one can learn one can observe what it means, violence means. And when there is such observation with great attention - because you cannot observe if there is no attention. The word 'attention' means to grasp, to go out and take. We are not using meaning in that sense. To attend. To attend to what you are saying, to attend to your thoughts, to attend diligently at this violence which has brought such great misery to human beings. When there is such pure attention, which is the gathering of all your energy, to focus on this fact of this reaction called violence, there is an ending completely of that violence. Please don't accept it from the speaker. He is not your authority, he is not your guru, he is not a professional. But you are observing this fact for yourself, seeing the truth of it.
Right, sirs. We will continue tomorrow, if we may, go into fear, what the nature of time, fear, pleasure, whether there is an ending to sorrow, and meditation. There is no time this morning so we must stop, but we will continue tomorrow.
May we get up? (Clapping) If you are clapping for yourself, out of your own enthusiasm, it is all right. But you are not clapping for the speaker.